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El CID ALFONSO AND SPAIN! – RODRIGO DE VIVAR AND FAMILY Figure 8 © Biddle Family Media, Inc. Statue of El Cid in Balboa Park, San Diego California. John Pierre Biddle Warden. 2012. A Replica of the Shield of Rodrigo de Vivar Figure 9 © Biddle Family Media, Inc. British Author Southey compiled and scripted, from the Cronica General de Espana, events about the life and times of Rodrigo el Cid Campeador Díaz de Vivar. Rodrigo is better known to history as “El Cid.” This basic historical rendition written in 1808 is full of El Cid’s historical events. Southey has gathered and transcribed events that happened between the years 1252 A.D. and 1284 A.D. It writes some 200 years after the demise of “El Cid” and from the administration of Alfonso, the Wise. This writer has modified Robert Southey’s account of the Crónica General de Espana. Thus, by consulting portions of the Cantar de Mio Cid, this writer is rendering his interpretation based from these accounts. Figure 10 Alfonso the Wise Alfonso the Wise writes the Cronica General de Espana during his reign. Knowledgeable in the studies of his time, Alfonso is also a troubadour. These combinations enhance Alfonso’s artistic endeavor. Alfonso reigned between the years 1252 and 1284, and the King writes this Chronicle himself, or administrators under his immediate direction continue writing the events. Crónica General de Espana is the most ancient of the Prose Chronicles of Spain. It is the source of the adventures of El Cid. The Cronica de Espana describes Rodrigo’s escapades and tells in this secondary source a history of the life and times of Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar. Robert Southey —is already known as the author of “Thalaba,” published in 1802, and of “Madoc,” published in 1805—He produces and publishes this “Chronicle of the Cid” in 1808. The Chronicle tells its readers that Rodrigo of Bivar trains in the martial arts and that he earns the respect of the people. He bears the responsibility to protect the land from the Moors. Rodrigo is so skilled in military matters that he never loses a battle. Although many of his enemies are Moors, Rodrigo also befriends many of these same people. He also makes enemies among his own. It was for these reasons that Rodrigo earns the epitaph of “leader and champion” or in Arabic “El Cid.” Before “El Cid’s” birth, the country is without a king. Therefore, the people meet and chose two judges, of whom the one is Nuño Rasuera and the other Layn Calvo. Layn married Nuño’s daughter; Elvira Nuñez unites the two families in blood relationships. From Nuño Rasuera King Don Fernando descends. In 1026, Rodrigo came from solid noble lineage. He is born in the city of Burgos, and in the street of St. Martin about the palace of the Counts of Castille. Layn Calvo is Rodrigo’s grandfather. His father is Diego Laynez. His mother is Dona Teresa Rodriguez, the daughter of Don Rodrigo Alvarez the Count of Asturias. During this time, an argument ensues “between Count Don Gomez the Lord of Gormaz, and Diego” Laynez- Rodrigo’s father. The Count insults Diego and gives him a slap across the face with his glove—the highest of insults during the middle Ages. Now Diego is a man of much years, and his health has long since passed. It is evident that he could not take any physical vengeance to protect himself, and so disgraced he retires from the castle to his home. Here he is to stay alone and deliberate about his dishonor. He could not eat, or sleep, he sits staring downward. He does not leave his house or see his friends. As if the venom of his shame would pollute them, he turned from them in silence. Indeed, the height of his depression debilitates his usually cheerful presence. Rodrigo is young, and the Count Don Gomez the Lord of Gormaz is a mighty and renowned man in arms, one who gives his voice first in the Cortes (the Spanish equivalent of a Council). The Count is the best warrior in all of Spain. So, powerful is he that he has thousands of friends spread throughout the mountain regions. Rodrigo, however, is oblivious to these things when he thinks of the insults hurled at his father and the devastating depression that it causes. It is the first insult -and Rodrigo vowed- it would be the last which would be extended to the blood of Layn Calvo. Rodrigo lives in the court of King Fernando I, and he lives in the household of the King’s eldest son, who is to be the future King Sancho II. Rodrigo asks nothing of Heaven but justice. He asks only for an excellent arena in which to resolve the dishonor, and his father seeing that his son is pure of heart gives to him, his sword and his blessing. Now he is no longer bearing the responsibility of protecting the Calvo name. From the bullying, the power of his father’s physical body lies dormant before him, yet more importantly, Count Don Gomez’s actions crush Layn’s soul. In his father’s presence, silently, Rodrigo plots to avenge the name of Calvo. The sword is the sword of Mudarra, a hero, in former times, and when Rodrigo holds its cross in his hand, he thinks within himself that his arm is no weaker than Mudarra’s. After that, he left his home and challenged Count Gomez to battle. In a confrontation, Rodrigo assassinates him. He sliced off his head with his father’s sword and carried it back to his abode. The Cid rectifies the insults that have so viciously destroyed his father’s soul. Restored and regenerated now is a new sense of honor delivered to his father’s home. Depressed and despondent, the old man is sitting at the table. The food is lying before him untasted. Rodrigo returns and pointing to the head which hung from the horse’s collar, dropping blood, he asks his father to look up. This head is a medicine that will restore Layne’s appetite. The tongue that insults is no longer, and the hand that wrongs severed; I restore the honor of the Calvo name. Now history relates that King Don Fernando argues with King Don Ramiro I of Aragon over the city of Calahorra. All claim this city as their own; in covert pretense the King of Aragon places it upon trial by combat He confidently relies upon the prowess of Don Martin Gonzalez, who is at that time held to be the finest warrior knight in all Spain. King Don Fernando accepts the challenge and names Rodrigo of Vivar as his champion. Rodrigo is not then present, but he will appear. “His real name is Rodrigo or Ruy Diaz de Vivar (i.e. “son of Diego”), a Castilian noble by birth.” In the spring of 1063, Rodrigo fights in the Battle of Graus, where King Ferdinand’s half-brother, Ramiro I of Aragon, lays siege to the Moorish town of Cinca, which is in Zaragoza lands. Al-Muqtadir, “accompanied by Castilian troops including El Cid,” fight against the Aragonite. Rodrigo emerges victoriously; Ramiro I die by murder and the Aragonite flee the field. One legend conveys that, during the conflict El Cid kills an Aragonite knight in single combat, this earned him the honorific title Campeador (Champion). Finally, Rodrigo does so well in facets of military skill that King Fernando makes him commander and chief of his armies. As the years passed, the Moors continued invading Castille. They come in larger and larger numbers. Five Kings invade with detachments of Moors and they past near Burgos, and cross the mountains of Oca, and plunder Carrion and Vilforado, and Saint Domingo de la Calzada, and Logroño, and Najara. They carry away many captives both male and female, and mares, and flocks of all kinds. Rodrigo Diaz of Vivar, as commander of Fernando armies, combs the country, and finally locates the Moors in the mountains of Oca. The Cid descends upon them and embarrasses them with his military prowess and maneuvers. He takes back all their illicit booty and captures all the five Moorish Kings. El Cid is thankful that he can return the illegal plunder to the people and to secure the safety of their borders. He says to his mother that he did not think it a good thing to keep the Kings in captivity, but to let them go; and so, he sets them free and tells them to leave. Accordingly, each return to his country, praising and blessing Rodrigo for his freedom, and they sent him great gifts, and immediately they sent him tribute and acknowledges themselves to be his vassals. So, El Cid now had the allegiance of five armies. At the same time, there came before Alfonso VI, Ximena Gomez, the daughter of the Count that Rodrigo had slain. She is the King’s cousin, who properly addressed the King “and said, Sir I am the daughter of Count Don Gomez of Gormaz, and Rodrigo of Bivar has slain the Count, my father.” I am the youngest. Sir, I come to ask a favor, that you will give me Rodrigo of Bivar to be my husband, and I am greatly honored; for I am sure that he will have more fame and wealth than any man in your dominions. Since Rodrigo has murdered my father, therefore; I am seeking his protection. In exchange for that protection, I vow to forgive Rodrigo a good marriage and be a good and faithful wife. When the King thought it an appropriate time, he speaks to Rodrigo and says that Doña Ximena Gomez, the daughter of the Count that is slain, has come to ask to make Rodrigo, her husband. She would forgive her father’s death; Alfonso requested him to think it a good thing to take her to be his wife, in which case Alfonso would show Rodrigo great favor. So, Rodrigo left the King and took his spouse with him to the house of his mother. He gives her to his mother’s protection. In the presence of his mother, he took Ximena’s hand and made a vow. He proclaims that he would never go anywhere until he had won five battles in the field. He explained that these battles were necessary for the protection and security of the realm. When Ferdinand died, Sancho II, with the aid of Rodrigo continues to enlarge his territory, Rodrigo conquers both Christian cities and the Moorish cities of Zamora and Badajoz. When Sancho learns that Alfonso was planning on overthrowing him to increase his area, Sancho sent El Cid to bring Alfonso back so that Sancho could speak to him. In the Cid’s absence, “Sancho was assassinated in 1072, as the result of a pact between his brother Alfonso and his sister Urraca. Since Sancho” dies unmarried and childless, all of his power passed to his brother Alfonso. Under Sancho II, son of Ferdinand, Rodrigo serves “as commander of the royal troops. In a war between the two brothers, Sancho II and Alfonso VI of Leon,” because of a military maneuver on the part of Rodrigo, Sancho is victorious, and his brother is forced to seek refuge with the Moorish King of Toledo. As the leader of the Castilians, Alfonso never forgave the Cid for having compelled him to swear that he, Alfonso, had no hand in the murder of his brother. “In 1072, Sancho was assassinated at the siege of Zamora, and he left no heir. The Castilians had to acknowledge Alfonso as King”. “So, he was the first person who united the areas of Castille and Leon.” Alfonso VI was the first, who was called King of both Castille and Leon. Before this time the lords of Castile are called Counts. Historically, the earliest literary treatment of El Cid’s life is found in Carmen Campidoctoris written by a Catalan partisan to celebrate El Cid’s victory over Berenguer Ramón II. The author of the Campidoctoris reports that, as a young man, according to the epic of El Cid, Alfonso VI was forced to say publicly that he has not participated to kill his brother. The oath was made openly” in front of Santa Gadea (Saint Agatha) Church in Burgos on holy relics multiple times.” This oath giving is widely reported as the truth among some historians, “but contemporary documents on the lives of both Rodrigo Diaz and Alfonso VI of Castile and León do not mention any such event.” In 1057, Rodrigo battled against the Moorish stronghold of Zaragoza. His conquest makes its emir, al-Muqtadir, and a vassal of King Sancho II. Almost immediately, Alfonso returns from exile in Toledo and takes his seat as king of Castile and León. He is deeply suspected in Castile by the nobility of the realm, of involvement in Sancho’s murder. Rodrigo’s position as armiger Regis is taken away and given to Rodrigo’s enemy, Count Garcia Ordonez. “In 1079, Rodrigo was sent by Alfonso VI to Seville to the court of al-Mutamid to collect the parias owed by that taifa to León–Castile.” While the Cid is in Seville Granada, assisted by other Castilian knights, attacks Seville, and Rodrigo and his forces repulse the Christian and Grenadine attackers at the Battle of Cabra, in the mistaken belief that he was defending the king’s tributary. The Count Garcia Ordonez and the other Castilian leaders are taken captive by the Cid “and held for three days before being released” . In the” Battle of Cabra (1079)”, El Cid rallies his troops and turns “the battle into a rout of Emir Abdulallh of Granada and his ally Garcia Ordonez.” However, El Cid’s unauthorized expedition into Granada greatly angers Alfonso and on May 8, 1080, El Cid confirms the last document in King Alfonso’s court. This unauthorized expedition is one of the given reasons for El Cid’s exile. Several other motives are plausible and may have been contributing factors. It is thought that jealous nobles turn Alfonso against El Cid, or Alfonso’s animosity once again raises its ugliness towards El Cid and an accusation of pocketing some of the monies from Seville help to seal the fate of El Cid. Figure 11 At first, he goes “to Barcelona, where Ramón Berenguer II (1076–1082) and Berenguer Ramón II (1076–1097)” refuse his offer of service. Then he journeys to the Taifa of Zaragoza where he receives a much warmer welcome. Alfonso never forgives Rodrigo for having, as of the Castilians, compelling him to swear that he has no hand in the murder of his brother. Alfonso does, though, as a conciliatory measure, gives his cousin Ximena, daughter of the Count of Oviedo, to the Cid in marriage. There afterwards, in 1081, when he finds himself firmly entrenched on the throne, and encouraged by Leonese nobles Alfonso strikes back. Rodrigo’ enemies unjustly accuse him of stealing money; they say the Cid is embezzling funds from the royal treasury. Alfonso VI yields to his feelings of resentment—and he banishes Rodrigo from the kingdom. “At the head of a large body of followers, the Cid” finally joins the Moorish King of Zaragoza, in whose service he fights against both Moslems and Christians with equal vigor. It is during this exile that he is first called “El Cid,” an Arabic title, which means the lord. He is very successful in all his battles never losing any military encounters. During the exile years, the Cid conquers city after city in Spain and claims that all is done in Alfonso’s name. To regain his integrity, he fought “against the Moorish armies and conquered Valencia. By these heroic acts, he regains the confidence of the king,” after a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Moors of Alfonso commanders, Rodrigo return to Alfonso’s court, and his honor restored. Alfonso knows he must now depend on Rodrigo and his honed fighting skills and leadership. Rodrigo’s function is to reset the morale of the troops. In honor of his return, King Alfonso VI personally marries Rodrigo’s daughters to two princes from Carrion (there is some historical questions about the assumed marriages). However, when men from El Cid’s army makes fun of the princes because they ran from a Lion; the two hammer the wives in revenge and left their wives tied to a tree. El Cid demands justice. The two are beaten in a duel and stripped of their honor, and they pay the dowry back to Rodrigo. The two daughters remarry a prince from Aragon and a prince from Navarre. Through these marriages, Rodrigo helps to begin the unification of Spain. Moctadir invades Valencia in 1088, but afterwards carries “on operations alone, and finally, after a long siege,” makes himself master of the city in June 1094. He retains possession of Valencia for five years. Rodrigo reigns as an independent sovereign over one of the richest territories on the Peninsula. El Cid dies suddenly in 1099 some say of anger on hearing that his relative, Alvar Fañez, is vanquished. The army that El Cid has sent for is decimated. After the Cid’s death, Doña Ximena holds Valencia till 1102. Finally, she is coerced to yield to the Almoravides and then escaped to Castile where she dies in 1104. Her remains are placed by those of” “El Cid” in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña.” The great popular hero in the AGE OF CHIVALRY in Spain is born in the village of Vivar near Burgos around 1040; Rodrigo or Ruy Diaz dies at Valencia, Spain in 1099. His adoring countrymen gave him the honorable epithets of El Cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of Campeador (champion) by the Spaniards. “Tradition and legend have cast a deep shadow over the history of this brave knight, to such an extent that some question his very existence,” but there is, however, no reason to doubt his existence. Some historians paint Rodrigo as a free agent, a dishonorable adventurer, one who battles with equal vigor against Christians and Moors alike. They see him as a man who furthers his selfish ends. In their view, he destroys a Christian church with the same zeal as he destroys a Muslim temple. To these people El Cid plunders and murders for gain and not from an honest, patriotic motive. It must be accepted in mind, however, that the facts that discredit him have reached us through the hostile eyes of Arab historians and that to deal with him impartially, “he should be judged according to the standard of his country in his historical time context.” The Cid of romance, legend, and ballad is famous. In that role, he is fancied as the tender, loving husband and father; the bold and fearless soldier; the noble and generous conqueror, staunchly loyal to his country and his king. Chivalry is the Cid whose name is hallowed and linked to the inspiration of Spanish nationalism. Some historians and artists describe Rodrigo’s career as being somewhat legendary, and others see him as vicious. On the other hand, there are detractors but mainly from Arab historians. El Cid Figure 12 Whatever the truth is, the real adventures of El Cid, Campeador have been told over and over throughout the centuries. “His name has come down to us in modern times about a long series of heroic achievements.” El Cid stands out as the central figure “in the long struggle of Christian Spain against the invading Muslim hoards.” When his daughters are abused by their first marriage El Cid demands justice. Using champions and duels the princes are killed, and justice is served. Next, the daughter of the Cid marries again. Rodrigo lives long enough to see his two daughters happily married. Cristina Dias Rodriguez, the oldest daughter of El Cid, was born in 1077. She has one son in 1099. He is to become King of Navarre, and he is to be known as Garcia VII (among other epitaphs) King of Navarre. He weds Cristina in 1099 or shortly before the infant Ramiro Sanchez is born. This marriage produces the future king of Pamplona, García Ramírez “the Restorer,” who in 1130 marries his first wife, Marguerite de L’Aigle. They are also parents of Elvira Ramirez, wife of Count Rodrigo Gomez, son of Count Gomez Gonzaletz that of Candespina, with the right to royal succession. Garcia Ramirez is the grandson of El Cid. Ramiro. In 1099 García VII Ramírez originates in Navarre, Spain. His father, Ramiro, was 29 and his mother, Cristina, was 22. He had one daughter in 1133. He dies in 1150 in Larca, Spain,” at the age of 51.” COUNTESS ALVIRA CRISTINA DIAZ RODRIGUEZ DE VIVAR Maria “and Cristina, daughters of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, are “beaten and left for dead by their husbands, the lords of Carrión. Cristina was eventually remarried to Ramiro Sanchez.” This particular story of the beatings of the daughters of El Cid according to many sources may well be false. The sources for such a tale simply are not in place. What is known is that the two daughters eventually married into royal families. El Cid descendants would now rule Europe. KING GARCÍA RAMÍREZ, THE RESTORER Do not confuse this Garcia for the earlier one of the same name, a Navarre’s sub-king, García Ramírez of Viguera. Historians report “García Ramírez, sometimes García IV, V, VI or VII (died 21 November 1150),” is called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), is Lord of Monzón and Logroño, and, from 1134, King of Navarre. He “restored” the freedom” of the Navarrese crown after 58 years of union with the Kingdom of Aragon.” The birth of Garcia takes place during the early part of the “twelfth century.” His father, Ramiro Sánchez of Monzón, is the son of Sancho Garcés, illegitimate son of García Sánchez III of Navarre and half-brother of Sancho IV. His mother Cristina is a daughter of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, better known in the annals of history as El Cid.” He is the grandson of El Cid. Garcia Ramirez IV King of Navarre Figure 12 In 1076, because of the murder of king Sancho IV by his siblings, Navarre united with Aragon. However, with the loss of the childless warrior king Alfonso the Battler in 1134 the succession fell into dispute. In his great will, Alfonso had left the combined kingdoms to three crusading orders, which effectively neutralized the Papacy from exercising a role in selecting among the potential candidates. The nobility quickly rejected the will, with that of Aragon favoring Alfonso’s younger brother Ramiro, a monk. The nobility of Navarre is skeptical of Ramiro abilities and whether having the necessary temperament he can resist the incursions by their western neighbor. The neighbor of the west was another claimant, King Alfonso VII of León and Castile. They, perhaps chafing under the continued Aragonese hegemony, initially favored a different candidate, Peter of Atarés, a grandson of Alfonso’s illegitimate uncle, Sancho Ramírez, Count of Ribagorza. A convocation of the bishops and nobility convenes at Pamplona. The meeting is to compare leadership qualities between Peter and Ramiro. Peter alienates the convention as he acts arrogantly. Consequently, they are for an heir from their dynasty, García Ramírez, Lord of Monzón. Garcia is the husband of Cristina de Vivar, the daughter of El Cid. He like Peter descended from an illegitimate brother of a former king. The nobility and clergy of Navarre select Garcia to reign as King. At the same time, Ramiro enthrones at Aragon, and he strongly opposed Garcia’s election in Navarre. In a light of this, the Bishop of Pamplona grants García his church’s treasure to fund his government against Ramiro’s pretensions. Among Garcia’s other early supporters were Lop Ennechones, Martinus de Leit, and Count Latro, who carries “out negotiations on the king’s behalf with Ramiro.” “Eventually, however, in January 1135 with the Pact of Vadoluongo the two monarchs reached a mutual accord of “adoption”: Deeming García as a “son” and Ramiro as a “father” attempts to maintain both the freedom of each kingdom and the de facto supremacy of the Aragonese. In May 1135, García declares himself a vassal of Alfonso VII. The security and lordship of Castile now operate under the vassalage of Garcia. Therefore, Alfonso recognizes Garcia’s royal status. Now that Garcia submits to Castile it functions as an act of protection for Navarre. It results in putting Navarra in an offensive alliance against Aragon. Now that García turns to Alfonso, this law forced Ramiro to marry and to produce an heir. Ramiro then forges an alliance with Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona. “On the other hand, García may have been responding to Ramiro’s marriage, which proved beyond doubt that the king of Aragon seeks another heir other than his distant relative and adopted son.” Before September 1135, Alfonso VI grants García the area of Zaragoza as a fief. [Seven] Recently conquered from Aragon, this outpost of Castilian authority in the east is “clearly beyond the military capacity of Alfonso to control and provides further reasons for the recognition of García in Navarre in return for not only his homage, but his holding Zaragoza on behalf of Castile. “ In 1136, Alfonso VI now does homage to Zaragoza and, therefore, he recognizes Ramiro as King of Zaragoza. In 1137, the suzerainty of Zaragoza changed hands to Raymond Berengar of Catalonia., however, Alfonso retains reign over it because Garcia’s reign over it has closed. “Sometime after 1130, but before his succession, García marries Marguerite de l’Aigle.” She is to bear him a son and successor, Sancho VI, as well as two daughters whom kings marry. The elder, Blanche, is born after Berengar IV has confirmed by a peace treaty to another bride in 1149, despite the count’s existing betrothal to Petronilla of Aragon, but García dies before the marriage could be carried out. Instead, she marries Sancho III of Castile. King Sancho’s younger daughter, Princess Margaret, marries King William I of Sicily. Garcia’s relationship with his first queen is, “however, shaky. She took on many lovers and showed favoritism to her French relatives.” She generates a second son named Rodrigo, but her husband refused to recognize as his own.” “On 24 June 1144, in León, García marries “Urraca, called “La Asturiana” (the Asturian), illegitimate daughter of Alfonso VII by Guntroda Pérez, “ to strengthen his relationship with his overlord. “This type of marriage was common among the nobility.” The marriage must ennoble on the basis of wealth and position not love. In 1136, García obliged to surrender Rioja to Castile but, in 1137, he allies with Alfonso I of Portugal and confronts Alfonso VII. They confirmed the peace between 1139 and 1140. He is after that an ally of Castile in the Reconquista and is “instrumental in the conquest of Almería in 1147. In 1146, he occupied Tauste, which belonged to Aragon, and Alfonso VII intervenes to mediate peace between the two kingdoms.” García dies on 21 November 1150 in Lorca, near Estella, and entombs “in the cathedral of Santa María la Real in Pamplona.” Garcia’s eldest son, Sancho VI-the Wise, succeeds him. Garcia leaves one daughter by Urraca: Sancha, she “married Gaston V of Béarn successively, “ and then Pedro Manrique de Lara. He leaves a widow in the person of his third wife, Ganfreda López. García greatest legacy besides the restoration is “the first monument of his reign, is the monastery of Santa María de la Oliva in Carcastillo. It is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.” Figure 13 The monastery of Santa María de la Oliva in Carcastillo. RESOURCES (Via Wikipedia) 1. Actas Del Congreso Internacional el Cid, Poema e Historia (12-16 de Julio de 1999), Ayuntamiento de Burgos, 2000, págs. 55-92. ISBN 84-87876-41-2 2. Ramón Menéndez Pidal, «Autógrafos inéditos Del Cid y de Jimena en dos diplomas de 1098 y 1101, » Revista de Filología Española, t. 5 (1918), Madrid, Sucesores de Hernando, 1918. Digital copies Valladolid, Junta de Castilla y León. Consejería de Cultura y Turismo. Dirección General de Promociones e Instituciones Culturales, 2009-2010. Original in Archivo de la Catedral de Salamanca, caja 43, legajo 2, n. º 72. 3. Alberto Montaner Frutos y Ángel Escobar, «El Carmen Campidoctoris y la materia cidiana, » in Carmen Campidoctoris Poema Latino del Campeador, Madrid, Sociedad Estatal España Nuevo Milenio, 2001, pág. 73 [lam.]. ISBN 978-84-95486-20-2 4. Alberto Montaner Frutos, «Rodrigo el Campeador como princeps en los siglos XI y XII» 5. Georges Martin «El primer testimonio cristiano sobre la toma de Valencia (1098), » en el número monográfico «Rodericus Campidoctor» de la revista electrónica e-Spania, n. º 10 (diciembre de 2010). Online since January 22nd, 2011. URL Last time visited November 28th, 2011. Complete text (Edition of the Latin text) in José Luis Martín & al., Documentos de los Archivos Catedralicio y Diocesano de Salamanca (siglos XII-XIII), Salamanca, Universidad, 1977, doc. 1, p. 79-81. 6. A b Chaytor, Henry John (1933). “Chapter 3: The Reconquista.” A History of Aragon and Catalonia, London: Methuen. Pp. 39–40. 7. The Historia Roderick says that the other two Castilian leaders were Diego Pérez and Lope Sánchez. De los Rios, José Amador (1863). “Capitulo 3: Primeros Monumentos Escritos de la Poesía Castellana (Chapter 3: First Written Monuments of Castilian Poetry).” Historia Crítica de la Literatura Española, Tomo III, (II Parte, Subciclo I) (The History and Criticism of Spanish Literature, Volume III, (Second Part, subpart I)) (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain: J. Rodriguez. P. 104.8. ^ a b c d Perea Rodríguez, Óscar. “Díaz de Vivar, Rodrigo El Cid, (1043-1099).” Retrieved 23 April 2012. 9. Alonso, J. I. Garcia; Martinez, J. A.; Criado, A. J. (1999). “Origin of El Cid’s sword revealed by ICP-MS metal analysis.” Spectroscopy Europe (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.) 11 (4) Translations into English Robert Southey, Chronicle of the Cid, 1808, prose translation with other matter from chronicles and ballads, with an appendix including a partial verse translation by John Hookham Frere. John Ormsby, The Poem of Cid, 1879, with introduction and notes. Archer Milton Huntington, Poem of the Cid, (1897–1903), reprinted from the unique manuscript at Madrid, with translation and notes. Lesley Byrd Simpson, the Poem of the Cid, 1957. W.S. Merwin, the Poem of the Cid, 1959. Paul Blackburn, Poem of the Cid: a modern translation with notes, 1966. Fuentes Ian Michael, 1976, (Introducción) a su Ed, Ian Michael, 1976, ‘Introduction’ to his ed. DePoema de Mío Cid, Madrid, Castalia p. 39. ISBN 978-84-7039-171-2. Alberto Montaner Frutos, 2011, La Historia Roderici y el archivo cidiano: cuestiones filológicas, diplomáticas, jurídicas e historiográficas, e-Legal History Review, 12, Alberto Montaner Frutos, 2011, “History and the file Roderici cidiano: philological issues, diplomatic, legal and historiographic,’ e-Legal History Review, 12, ISSN 1699-5317 ISSN 1699-5317. Wikipedia.com The legendary sword of “El Cid-Tizona. (Accessed September 24, 2014).

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